By Valentin Igochine
During the previous century, world-wide power intake has risen dramatically, which ends up in a quest for brand spanking new strength resources. Fusion of hydrogen atoms in scorching plasmas is an enticing method of resolve the strength challenge, with considerable gasoline, inherent protection and no long-lived radioactivity. besides the fact that, one of many limits on plasma functionality is because of many of the periods of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities that can take place. The physics and regulate of those instabilities in smooth magnetic confinement fusion units is the topic of this publication. Written through preferable specialists, the contributions will supply precious reference and up to date learn experiences for "old fingers" and rookies alike.
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Extra resources for Active Control of Magneto-hydrodynamic Instabilities in Hot Plasmas
The achievable density is clearly reduced if the plasma is contaminated by impurities. Wall conditioning is a standard technique to avoid this situation. An example is presented in Fig. 13 for the TEXTOR tokamak. Different groups of data points in Fig. 13 show that the limit has increased due to the application of advanced wall coating methods: carbonized wall, boronized wall, and siliconized wall . The basic idea is that the impurities released at the first wall can dilute the plasma and cause strong line radiation.
2 Greenwald Limit To the right of the operation space we encounter the density limit, which determines maximum achievable plasma density for a given plasma current. This is the most interesting corner of the operation space, since the fusion reaction rate scales with n2 . The plasma current has to be also maximised to reach this goal as seen from Fig. 10. In the majority of cases, the density limit shows up as a disruptive event in which the plasma thermal energy is quenched in about 1 ms, while the energy stored in the plasma current is dissipated on a time scale of the order of 10 ms .
Two general properties of the magnetic field lines, magnetic pressure and magnetic field line tension, play an important role in this balance (see for example book by Harra and Mason ). B B2 B2 ¼ r? B The parallel component provides tension only along the magnetic field and is not able to compensate the plasma pressure. The final pressure balance, perpendicular to the magnetic field, can be written as follows: 2 Magneto-Hydrodynamics and Operational Limits 23 (c) (a) J p B p Δ Δ p θ (b) φ unfavorable favorable p Δ plasma F p F Δ Δ plasma Fmagnetic Δ pressure p Fmagnetic pressure Fmagnetic tension Fmagnetic tension Fig.
Active Control of Magneto-hydrodynamic Instabilities in Hot Plasmas by Valentin Igochine